Most people will tell you that not being able to see a particular colour means that you would be colour blind but I look at it as a gift that select individuals are given to free themselves from just another perception. I, myself, can't imagine not being able to see a particular colour, to break it down to it's primary colours and know just how much of each black, white, red, green, and yellow make up that particular colour and it's value. A colour blind person can see values of grey, but perhaps I should explain what "value" is first to better understand how someone who is colour blind (gifted) can differentiate between coloured objects.
Colour is broken down into lightness (dark vs. light), saturation (intense vs. dull), and hue (red, blue, yellow, etc.), but it is the amount of lightness that has a value between 0 and 10 - 0 being white and 10 being black. What is particular about making a space pleasing is the amount of each of those three for each colour, but when you're color blind (gifted) you can't see hue.
But there are improvements being made for the he population that has some form of colour vision limitations. Welcome ColorAdd - a colour identifying system for colour blind people - by Miguel Neiva.
Offering to colorblind recognizing independence, a simpler social integration in situations in which the choice of a color is determinant and minimizing the feeling of lost created by this handicap, with the consequent increase of well-being and self-confidence.
Neiva is working to standardize colour identificaitons across the globe with a simple icon system shown below:
And below is how the colour coding system can work on actual colours:
I think this system is genius. This is the type of solution work that designers can do to make a huge impact on how we all lead our lives.
If you want more on the secrets of colour, chat with Maria Killam of Colour Me Happy. She's the true colour maven.